Asking for permission to do something takes many different forms. Perhaps you need to get permission to do something at work, or perhaps you need to ask a friend for permission to use one of her possessions, or maybe you need to ask the teacher if you can leave room for a moment or two. Remember to use polite forms when asking for permission to do something or use an object as you are ???asking a favor of that person.
请求允许做某事有许多不同的形式。也许你需要得到许可才能在工作中做某事,或者你需要向一个朋友请求许可才能使用她的一件物品,或者你需要询问老师你是否可以离开一两分钟。当你在请求别人帮忙时,记住要用礼貌的方式来请求允许做某事或使用某个物品。

How to Ask for Permission in English
如何用英语请求许可

Can I + verb (very informal)
Can I + 动词 (非常不正式)

Can I go out tonight?
我今晚能出去吗?

Can he have dinner with us?
他能和我们一起吃饭吗?

NOTE: The use of "Can I do something?" is very informal, and considered incorrect by many. However, it is used in everyday informal speech and for that reason has been included.
注意:使用“Can I do something?”非常不正式,许多人认为它不正确。然而,它被用于日常的非正式讲话,因此也被包括在内。

May I + verb
May I + 动词

May I have another piece of pie?
我可以再吃一块派吗?

May we go out with our friends tonight?
我们今晚可以和朋友出去吗?

NOTE: Traditionally, the use of "May I do something?" has been used for asking permission. In modern society, this form has become a little more formal and is often replaced with other forms such as "Can I..." and "Could I ..." Many argue that "Can I ..." is incorrect because it refers to ability. However, this form is quite common in everyday, spoken situations.
注意:习惯上,使用“May I do something?”用于请求许可。在现代社会中,这种形式变得更加正式,并且经常被其他形式所取代,比如“Can I...”和“Could I...”,许多人认为“Can I...”是不正确的,因为它指的是能力。然而,这种形式在日常口语情境中非常常见。

Could I please + verb
Could I please + 动词

Could I please go with Tom to the movie?
我能和汤姆一起去看电影吗?

Could we please go on trip this weekend?
我们这周末能去旅行吗?

Do you think I could + verb
Do you think I could + 动词

Do you think I could use your cell phone?
你觉得我可以用你的手机吗?

Do you think I could borrow your car?
你觉得我可以借下你的车吗?

Would it be possible for me + infinitive
Would it be possible for me + 不定式

Would it be possible for me to use your computer for a few minutes?
我能用你的电脑几分钟吗?

Would it be possible for to study in this room?
我可以在这个房间学习吗?

Would you mind if I + verb in past
Would you mind if I + 动词过去式

Would you mind if I stayed a few more minutes?
你介意我再呆几分钟吗?

Would you mind if I took a five minute break?
你介意我休息五分钟吗?

Would you mind my + verb + ing + your + object
Would you mind my + 动词ing + your + object

Would you mind my using your cellphone?
你介意我用你的手机吗?

Would you mind my playing your piano?
你介意我弹你的钢琴吗?

How to Grant Permission in English
如何用英语授予许可

If you would like to say "yes" to someone who asks permission, you can give permission using these phrases. The first three are more informal, while the fourth is formal.
如果你想对请求许可的人说“是”,你可以用这些短语给予许可。前三个比较不正式,而第四个比较正式。

Sure.
当然。

No problem.
没问题。

Go right ahead.
开始吧。

Please feel free + infinitive
Please feel free + 不定式

Please feel free to eat something.
请随意吃点儿什么吧。

How to Politely Refuse a Favor/Deny Permission
如何礼貌地拒绝帮助/拒绝许可

Saying 'no', is never fun, but sometimes it's necessary. See the conversations below for some examples.
说“不”从来都不好玩,但有时这是必要的。有关一些示例,请参阅下面的对话。

I'm afraid I'd prefer if you didn't / don't.
恐怕我觉得不行。

Sorry, but I'd rather you not do that.
抱歉,当我觉得你最好别这样。

Unfortunately, I need to say no.
不幸的是,我不得不拒绝。

I'm afraid that's not possible.
我恐怕不行。

When denying permission, people will sometimes instead offer to help in other ways, using the words "how about" and "instead" to offer alternatives.
当拒绝许可时,人们有时会用其他方式提供帮助,使用“how about”和“instead”来提供其他帮助。

I'm afraid I can't let you borrow my car, but I could drive you instead.
恐怕我不能让你借我的车,但是我可以代你开车。

I can't babysit your daughter. How about I call my sitter for you instead?
我不能照顾你的女儿。我替你叫我的保姆怎么样?

I wish I could help out, maybe another time.
我希望我能帮忙,也许改天吧。

Sample Dialogues for Practice: Asking for Permission Which Is Given
练习的示例对话:请求被给予许可

Jack: Hi Sam, do you think I could use your cell phone for a moment?
杰克:嗨,山姆,你觉得我可以用一下你的手机吗?

Sam: Sure, no problem. Here you are.
山姆:当然,没问题。给你。

Jack: Thanks buddy. It will only be a minute or two.
杰克:谢谢你,伙计。只要一两分钟。

Sam: Take your time. No rush.
山姆:慢慢来。不要着急。

Jack: Thanks!
杰克:谢谢!

Student: Would it be possible for me to have a few more minutes to review before the quiz?
学生:我能在测验前多花几分钟复习吗?

Teacher: Please feel free to study for a few more minutes.
老师:可以多学习几分钟。

Student: Thank you very much.
学生:非常感谢。

Teacher: No problem. Do you have any questions in particular?
老师:没问题。你有什么特别的问题吗?

Student: Uh, no. I just need to review things quickly.
学生:嗯,不。我只是需要快速复习一遍。

Teacher: OK. We'll begin in five minutes.
老师:好的。我们五分钟后开始。

Student: Thank you.
学生:谢谢。

Example Situations: Asking for Permission Which Is Denied
示例情景:请求被拒绝

Employee: Would you mind if I came in late to work tomorrow?
员工:你介意我明天上班迟到吗?

Boss: I'm afraid I'd prefer if you didn't.
老板:我觉得你最好别迟到。

Employee: Hmmm. What if I work overtime tonight?
员工:嗯。如果我今晚加班怎么办?

Boss: Well, I really need you for the meeting tomorrow. Is there any way you can do whatever it is you need to do later.
老板:嗯,明天开会我真的需要你。你有什么办法可以以后再做需要做的事情吗?

Employee: If you put it that way, I'm sure I can figure something out.
员工:如果你那样说,我确信我能想出一些办法。

Boss: Thanks, I appreciate it.
老板:谢谢,我很感激。

Son: Dad, can I go out tonight?
儿子:爸爸,我今晚能出去吗?

Father: It's a school night! I'm afraid that's not possible.
父亲:今天是周内上课的晚上!恐怕这是不可能的。

Son: Dad, all my friends are going to the game!
儿子:爸爸,我所有的朋友都要去看比赛了!

Father: I'm sorry son. Your grades haven't been the best recently. I'm going to have to say no.
父亲:对不起,儿子。你的成绩最近不是最好的。我得说不。

Son: Ah, Dad, come on! Let me go!
儿子:啊,爸爸,快点!让我走!

Father: Sorry son, no is no.
父亲:对不起,儿子,不行就是不行。